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Industrial production of beer

курсовые работы, биология

Объем работы: 31 стр.

Год сдачи: 2009

Стоимость: 500 руб.

Просмотров: 469

 

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Оглавление
Введение
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CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………….....2
I. REVIEW OF LITERATURE……………………………………………………….3
1.1.History………………………………………………………………………….....3
1.2.Brewing…………………………………………………………………………....5
1.3. Ingredients..............................................................................................................8
1.3.1.Water……………………………………………………………….....9
1.3.2 .Starch source……………………………………………………........9
1.3.3. Hops………………………………………………...………....……10
1.3.4. Yeast……………………………………………………………......11
1.3.5 Clarifying agent………………………………………………...…....11
II. OUTLINE OF THE THEME...…………………………………….......................12
2.1. Brewing process…………………………………………………………..….....12
2.2. Varieties of beer…………………………………………………….….............16
2.3. Brewing industry……………………………………………………………......22
2.4. Serving……………………………………………………………………….....24
2.5. Beer and society………………………………………………………………...28
CONCLUSIONS…………………………………………………………………….30
LIST OF THE LITERATURE USED…………………………………………….....31
Introduction. Beer as an alcoholic beverage
Beer is the world\'s oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of starches, mainly derived from cereal grains—the most common of which is malted barley, although wheat, maize/co
, and rice are also widely used. Most beer is flavored with hops, which add bitte
ess and act as a natural preservative, though other flavorings such as herbs or fruit may occasionally be included. Alcoholic beverages distilled after fermentation or fermented from non-starch sources such as grape juice (wine) or honey (mead) are not classified as beer.
Some of humanity\'s earliest known writings refer to the production and distribution of beer: the Code of Hammurabi included laws regulating beer and beer parlours, and \"The Hymn to Ninkasi,\" a prayer to the Mesopotamian goddess of beer, served as both a prayer and as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few literate people[9]. Today, the brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries.
The basics of brewing beer are shared across national and cultural boundaries and are commonly categorized into two main types—the globally popular pale lagers and the regionally distinct ales which are further categorised into other varieties such as pale ale, stout and brown ale. The strength of beer is usually around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume though may range from less than 1% abv., to over 20% in rare cases[3].

Fig.1 Leffe, a Belgian beer, served in its own branded glasses
Fig.2
Schlenkerla Rauchbier straight from the cask
Beer forms part of the culture of various beer-drinking nations and has acquired various social traditions and associations, such as beer festivals and a rich pub culture involving activities such as pub crawling or...
CONCLUSIONS
Analysed my course work, I want to make a conclusions. At first, the main process of industrial production of beer it is fermentation or fermenting. French chemist Louis Pasteur was the first known zymologist, when in 1854 he connected yeast to fermentation. Pasteur originally defined fermentation as \"respiration without air\". Pasteur performed careful research and concluded:
\"I am of the opinion that alcoholic fermentation never occurs without simultaneous organization, development and multiplication of cells.... If asked, in what consists the chemical act whereby the sugar is decomposed ... I am completely ignorant of it.\"
The Basic Beer-Production Process
To ferment the starch inside the grains of the cereals, it is malted (softened by soaking in water and allowed to germinate) and mashed with warm water; this allows the diastases of the grains, which are activated by the malting and mashing processes, to break the starches into shorter carbohydrates, upon which yeasts can act. After separation, a clarified liquid, known as wort, is produced, which is then boiled with hops; this adds a note of bitte
ess to the beer\'s flavor while killing microorganisms. After chilling, yeast is added (either naturally from the environment or as an intentional addition), and fermentation takes place. After clarifying and storage, the beer is ready for consumption.

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