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The transformations while translating the women's images (on the material of Theodore Dreiser's novel “Sister Carrie).

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Оглавление
Введение
Заключение
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Content
Chapter 1
Introduction……………………………………………………………………….2
Chapter 2
2.1 General principles of translation……………………………………………….6
2.2 Stylistic devices (SD)………………………………………………………….7
2.2.1 Lexical stylistic device……………………………………………………….8
2.2.2 Syntactical Stylistic Devices………………………………………………..16
2.3 Lexical transformations……………………………………………………….19
2.4 Grammatical transformations…………………………………………………36
Chapter 3
3.1 The transformations while translating the women's images (on the material of Theodore Dreiser's novel “Sister Carrie………………………………………….49
3.2 Сonclusion…………………………………………………………………….74
3.3 Text……………………………………………………………………………79
3.3.1 Analysis……………………………………………………………………..83
The list of the used literature…………………………………………………….101
The list of the used dictionnaries………………………………………………...104
Chapter 1
Introduction

Woman is the sourse of everything alive; women’s images were sung by mankind from the moment when the thought of transformation of Adam’s twelfth rib in something humanoid has occurred to the Supreme Being. Woman’s beauty, charm, rich inward life inspires a poetic muse. Unforgettable women’s images, created by poets and writers, excite hearts of readers.
Different women, different destinies, different women’s images are presented on pages of fiction, publicism, in painting, sculpture, on a screen. The image of real woman and woman, created by imagination of the creator, can be found in all genres and kinds of art. Women’s theme has always attracted writers, painters and other men of art. Everybody knows unforgettable women’s images, created by Peter Paul Rubens, such as “The Virgin and Child”, “The Exchange of Princesses”, “Venus at the Mirror” or ,for example, paintings, created by Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci “Mona Lisa” or “ Virgin of the Rocks”. We also can remember beautiful statue of Venus, the goddess of love and beauty in Roman mythology.
There woman occurs in the most diverse images: in the image of totem, ancient Greek deity, in a role of fighter, avenger, the Virgin, the Tsar-maiden, sister, girlfriend, rival, bride and etc. These images are the embodiment of characteristic features of a place and time, beauty and horror, great and terrestrial; it is always interesting for every person.
Very often men assign women o role of execute of man’s will; men always strive for subjugate, bend to their will, control and make women serve for men. We should not forget that women of all centuries have a very complicated and severe destiny, as they couldn’t be masters of their destiny, they live under trying conditions.
For example, do you think what was the world like for women in the first millennium? In Christian Europe it was a violent time when nobles and their knights were preoccupied with holding onto their land,...
After making the review of the theoretical literature and the practical research, we came to the conclusion.
The term “ stylistic device” is suggested by I.Galperin who considers SD “a conscious and intentional literary use of some of the facts of the language (including expressive means) in which the most essential features (both structural and semantic) of the language forms are raised to a generalized level”. Needless to say that most SD may be regarded as aiming at the further intensification of the emotional or logical emphasis. This conscious transformation of language units into a stylistic device has been observed by certain linguists whose interest in scientific research has gone beyond the boundaries of grammar. Thus A. Potebnja writes, “As far back as in Ancient Rome and Greece and with few exceptions up to the present time the definition of the figurative use of a word has been based on the contrast between ordinary speech used in its own, natural, primary meaning and transferred speech ” .
In other words, the main constituting feature of stylistic device is the opposition of two meanings of the applied unit, one of which is normatively fixed in the language and does not depend on the context while the other one originates in the certain context. I.Galperin calls this phenomenon Interaction as far as Lexical level is conce
ed.
Syntactical stylistic devices deal with the syntactical arrangement of the utterance that results in the emphasis of the whole construction.
Inversion is a SD in which the direct word order is changed either completely so that predicate precedes the subject or partially so that the object precedes the subject-predicate pair.” We should remember that the stylistic device of inversion should not be confused with grammatical inversion which is a norm in interrogative construction.
Repetition is a recurrence of the same word, word combination or phrase for two or more times.
I. Galperin believes that when used as a...

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