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English language variation and change

курсовые работы, английский язык

Объем работы: 36 стр.

Год сдачи: 2008

Стоимость: 1000 руб.

Просмотров: 586

 

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INTRODUCTION 3
PART 1. THEORY 5
CH. 1. THE DEFINITION OF TERM “LANGUAGE” 5
CH. 2. ENGLISH LANGUAGES WITHIN OTHER LANGUAGES 9
CH. 3. THE VALUE OF LANGUAGES IN MODERN SOCIETY 11
CH. 4. THE ROLE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 13
CH. 5. ENGLISH SPEAKING COUNTRIES AND THEIR DIALECTS 16
CH. 6. SCIENTIFIC TERMS, THEIR TRANSLATIONS AND COMPARISON 22
CH. 7. ENGLISH LANGUAGE FOR FOREIGN PEOPLES 24
PART 2. PRACTICAL IMPLEMENTATION 26
CH. 1. SOME EXAMPLES OF CHANGES IN ENGLISH VOCABULARY 26
CH. 2. SCIENCE TERMS: DISTINCTIONS, RESTRICTIONS, AND CONFUSIONS 30
CONCLUSION 34
BIBLIOGRAPHY 36
Only a few centuries ago the English language consisted of a collection of dialects spoken mainly by monolinguals and only within the shores of a small island.
The English vocabulary has changed continually over more than 1,500 years of development. The most nearly complete dictionary of the language, the Oxford English Dictionary (second edition, 20 volumes, 1989), contains more than 600,000 words, including obsolete forms and variant spellings. The present English vocabulary consists words, including slang and dialect expressions and scientific and technical terms, many of which only came into use after the middle of the 20th century. The English vocabulary is more extensive than that of any other language in the world, although some other languages have a word-building capacity equal to that of English.
Now the English language includes such typologically distinct varieties as pidgins and creoles, ‘new’ Englishes, and a range of different standard and nonstandard varieties that are spoken on a regular basis in many different countries throughout the world. English is also, of course, the main language used for communication at an inte
ational level.
Spoken by about 470 million people throughout the world, English is the official language of about 45 nations. It is the mother tongue of about 60 million persons in the British Isles, from where it spread to many other parts of the world owing to British exploring, colonizing, and empire-building from the 17th through 19th cent. It is now also the first language of an additional 228 million people in the United States; 16.5 million in Canada; 17 million in Australia; 3 million in New Zealand and a number of Pacific islands; and approximately 15 million others in different parts of the Weste
Hemisphere, Africa, and Asia. As a result of such expansion, English is the most widely scattered of the great speech communities.
It is also the most commonly used auxiliary language in the world. The United...
Overview papers survey the context in which English is spoken in those parts of the world where it is widely used. The work therefore contributes both to our understanding of the English language worldwide and to a more general understanding of language as it is used in its social context. It assesses the extent of our current knowledge of variation in the English language.
Riding the crest of globalization and technology, English dominates the world as no language ever has, and some linguists are now saying it may never be dethroned as the king of languages. Thus the English language no longer "belongs" to its native speakers but to the world.
Some insist that linguistic evolution will continue to take its course over the centuries and that English could eventually die as a common language as Latin did, or Phoenician or Sanskrit or Sogdian before it.
Impact of this massive growth of English, in common with other global languages, has been to reduce native linguistic diversity in many parts of the world historically, most particularly in Australasia and North America, and its huge influence continues to play an important role in language attrition. By a similar token, historical linguists, aware of the complex and fluid dynamics of language change, are always alive to the potential English contains through the vast size and spread of the communities that use it and its natural inte
al variety, such as in its creoles and pidgins, to produce a new family of distinct languages over time.
There may be more native speakers of Chinese, Spanish or Hindi, but it is English they speak when they talk across cultures, and English they teach their children to help them become citizens of an increasingly intertwined world.
The question now arises: which language can serve as the global language? For demographic, cultural or economic reasons candidates for a global language are: English, Chinese, Spanish, Arabic, French, Latin, or an artificial language. The following...

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