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ZEUGMA IN THE NOVEL «THE RAPE OF THE LOCK» AND ITS TRANSLATION

курсовые работы, английский язык

Объем работы: 42 стр.

Год сдачи: 2009

Стоимость: 1200 руб.

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INTRODUCTION 3
CHAPTER I. THE THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF DEFINITIONS
OF ZEUGMA 6
1.1 ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF THE WORD «ZEUGMA» 6
1.2 DEFINITION, CLASSIFICATION AND AN EXEMPLARY
USE OF ZEUGMA 11
CHAPTER II. ALEXANDER POPE AND HIS POEM
«THE RAPE OF THE LOCK» 19
2.1 ABOUT ALEXANDER POPE'S CREATIVITY 19
2.2 ABOUT «THE RAPE OF THE LOCK» BY ALEXANDER POPE 21
CHAPTER III. ZEUGMA IN THE NOVEL «THE RAPE OF THE LOCK» AND ITS TRANSLATION 26
3.1 POPE’S STYLE AND POETIC TECHNIQUE IN «THE RAPE
OF THE LOCK» 26
3.2 EXAMPLES OF ZEUGMA IN POPE’S WORK AND THEIR
TRANSLATION 33
CONCLUSIONS 39
BIBLIOGRAPHY 42
Human speech is capable not only to transfer ideas but also to cause figurative representations about reality in all its sensual reliability. It is not an exaggeration that any word participates in disclosing of any contents and depending on a context can be also figurative means. But in any language there are such words and expressions (figurative-expressive means of a language) with the help of which writers can brightly, figuratively, expressively and briefly characterize these or those features or sides of any subject or phenomenon. The interaction of the meaning of words for the creation of artistic images has been studying for a long time in stylistics under the name "figures of speech".
Figures of speech as figurative-expressive means of language have drawn attention since the times of a classical antiquity and in details were described in rhetoric, poetics and other humanities. The essence of figures of speech consists of comparison of the concept submitted in the traditional use of a lexical unit, and the concept transmitted by the same unit in a work of art performing special stylistic functions.
Figures of speech play an important (though an auxiliary) role in the interpretation of a text. Different linguists have studied the figurative-expressive means of the language. Some authors (I. A
old, V. Mamonov, and N. Razinkina) are limited only to the review of the figurative-expressive means and demonstrate their application. Other authors (V. Kukharenko, I. Galperin and A. Morohovsky) offer their classifications: a) in accordance with their features and b) in accordance with the description of events and objects.
On shoulders of the translator lies the responsibility for adequate transfer of the text. Art "to inform the author" to the reader consists now not only in skill to transfer the text without infringement of usual norms of language on which translation is carried out, but also at the maximal reflection of cultural (mental) features of language...
Zeugma is a figure of speech describing the joining of two or more parts of a sentence with a single common verb or noun. A zeugma employs both ellipsis, the omission of words which are easily understood, and parallelism, the balance of several words or phrases. The result is a series of similar phrases joined or yoked together by a common and implied noun or verb. In a mode
sense, the zeugma has been classified as a synonym for syllepsis, a particular kind of zeugma, although there is a clear distinction between the two in classical treatises written on the subject. Henry Peacham praises the “delight of the ear” in the use of the zeugma in rhetoric, but stresses to avoid “too many clauses.” The zeugma is categorized according to the location and part of speech of the gove
ing word.
Zeugma arises between senses which are more distantly separated points on the sense spectrum. In one sense, the physical use of a verb establishes a point of origin on the sense spectrum, and metaphorical uses draw out the points along the sense spectrum. The type of object, i.e., the degree of abstractness of the object, establishes a 'metaphoric' distance from the 'original' use of the verb.
Zeugma includes several similar rhetorical devices, all involving a grammatically correct linkage (or yoking together) of two or more parts of speech by another part of speech. Thus examples of zeugmatic usage would include one subject with two (or more) verbs, a verb with two (or more) direct objects, two (or more) subjects with one verb, and so forth. The main benefit of the linking is that it shows relationships between ideas and actions more clearly.
In Figurative Language we use words in such a way that they differ somewhat from ordinary every-day speech and convey meanings in a more vivid and impressive manner. Figures, like zeugma make speech more effective, they beautify and emphasize it in Rhetoric which is the art of speaking and writing effectively. Figures of speech such as zeugma...

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