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Conceptual design for construction of offshore segments of the north-European gas pipeline (Baltic Sea)

дипломные работы, английский язык

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Год сдачи: 2010

Стоимость: 10000 руб.

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1. An original article: “Conceptual design for construction of
offshore segments of the north-European gas pipeline (Baltic Sea).
Description of pipeline system and base option selection”………...page
2. Sources…………………………………………………………….page
3. Translation of the article…………………………………………..page
4. Annotation of the article…………………………………………..page
5. Glossary…………………………………………………………...page
6. Analysis of an abstract…………………………………………….page
Active export gas pipelines from Russia to Europe cannot completely satisfy increasing gas demand. The development of the «North-European Gas Pipeline» (NEGP) construction project began several years ago in order to solve this problem and increase the reliability of Russian gas exportation.
The construction of NEGP will make it possible to maximally decrease gas transit costs since the gas pipeline was located so that it could avoid territorial waters of all states except Russia and Germany.
1.1 World Experience
The projects of similar scales have not been developed in Russia. Until recently, Russian offshore hydrocarbon pipelines from a deposit to a coast have crossed only water obstacles. However, the construction of the first unique gas pipeline «Blue Stream» from Russia to Turkey was completed in December 2002. The total length of the offshore route segment for two pipeline branches is about 390 and 382.5 km, respectively; the maximal water depth reaches 2150 m. Two gas pipeline branches are composed of pipes of 610 mm in diameter and with a wall thickness of 31.8 mm. The design pressure is 25.0 MPa. This experience was maximally used during the development of the NEGP project.
The hydraulic calculations indicated that all considered options make it possible to transport the specified gas volumes (83.714 million m day) at a final pressure higher than 6 MPa. However, the gas temperature substantially decreases on the last route segment due to the Joule-Thompson effect, as a result of which certain options are rejected.

5.3.1 Studying the Theoretically Reachable Maximal Productivity of the Gas Pipeline
The NEGP maximal productivity was calculated for the 48-inch pipeline with an inner diameter of 1150.2 mm and with intermediate CS, where a pressure of 21 MPa is maintained. The final pressure varied from 10 to 13 MPa.

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