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The roots of religious conflicts in Ireland

курсовые работы, английский язык

Объем работы: 27 стр.

Год сдачи: 2013

Стоимость: 500 руб.

Просмотров: 112

 

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Оглавление
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Introduction……………………………………………………………………..3
1. The roots of Ireland's "troubles"……………………………………………..5
1.1 Political roots………………………………………………………………..5
1.2 Religious roots………………………………………………………………10
2. Social changes and movements towards peace……………………………….12
2.1 1980-2000…………………………………………………………………....12
2.2 2000-2013……………………………………………………………………16
3. Measures of peasfull settlement……………………………………………….20
3.1 Social and political consequences of the conflict…………………………….20
3.2 Prospects for the future………………………………………………………21
Conclusions………………………………………………………………………24
The list of the used sources ………………………………………………………27
Northe
Ireland’s conflict is a tangle of interrelated questions. What should be the essential political context for the people of Northe
Ireland? How can social and economic inequalities, especially in the field of employment, be remedied? How can the state accommodate religious and cultural differences relating to education, the Irish language and the broad spread of cultural expression? How can political disputes be conducted without resorting to violence? How can security and order be justly and inclusively administered in a deeply divided society?
It is not easy to weigh the relative importance of these questions. Northe
Ireland’s population is approximately 55% Protestant and 45% Catholic, and the two communities place their emphases on different elements of the problem. Protestants are more likely to see the conflict in constitutional and security terms, and are primarily conce
ed about preserving the union with Britain and resisting the perceived threat of a united Ireland. Catholic views fall generally into two broad categories. Some perceive the issue as a nationalist struggle for self-determination, looking back to what they regard as the historical integrity of the island and the gerrymander of partition.
The conflict in Northe
Ireland, which has killed thousands, has political and religious roots that are centuries old. In mode
times the conflict is centred on opposing views of the area's status. Some people in Northe
Ireland, especially the mainly Protestant Unionist community, believe it should remain part of the United Kingdom. Others, particularly the mainly Catholic Nationalist community, believe it should leave the UK and become part of the Republic of Ireland.
Northe
Ireland is a land of contradictions, in its land, its people, and its politics. Its story is as fascinating, as it is tragic; as intellectually compelling, as it is violent; and as complicated as it is simple. For centuries, England has gove
ed the people of Northe...
The conflict has been divided down many lines; ethnically between the British and the Irish, geographically, between the North and the South of Ireland, and religiously between Protestants and Catholics. Theories that have emerged have pointed to causes such as land claims and a nationalist ideology, ethnicity and culture, and perhaps most frequently, religion when attempting to define the conflict. In fact, what is more likely is that elements of all of these issues lie at the root of what is commonly referred to as "The Troubles".
“The Troubles” in Northe
Ireland really began when the British granted independence to the 26 of 32 counties in 1920 and partitioned the island, dividing the Irish people and imposing a different British identity on the North. In the decades following partition, the Irish people might have adapted and accepted the situation, but the gove
ing class exploited and discriminated against the Irish minority, establishing an oppressive state and denying basic rights.
Since 1969, the provincial death toll has grown to more than 3500 in an area whose population is only about 1.6 million. A comparable relative death toll in America would be about 560,000. The British imposed an Emergency Powers Act (EPA), the Prevention of Terrorism Act (PTA) and maintained a military force of about 18,000, supporting the RUC police force of 12,000. The RUC forces had 161 fortified bases, with the British army occupying 135 military bases. Belfast, alone, housed 56 military installations. Armored convoys and armed foot-patrols were common in Nationalist areas, even during cease-fire periods and army “forts” loomed above the normal landscape, while helicopters hover incessantly overhead all day, every day.
Often portrayed as a religious conflict, this notion is inaccurate. Political and religious leaders skillfully exploited religious differences to manipulate, justify, inflame, divide or unite people, creating a culture of sectarian prejudice that...

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